The Linux Command Line:A Complete Introduction

The Linux Command Line
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作者:
出版社: NO STARCH PRESS
2012-01
ISBN: 9781593273897
定价: 398.10
装帧: 平装
开本: 其他
纸张: 其他
页数: 446页
正文语种: 英语
  • You'veexperiencedtheshiny,point-and-clicksurfaceofyourLinuxcomputer-nowdivebelowandexploreitsdepthswiththepowerofthecommandline.TheLinuxCommandLinetakesyoufromyourveryfirstterminalkeystrokestowritingfullprogramsinBas WilliamE.Shotts,Jr.hasbeenasoftwareprofessionalandavidLinuxuserformorethan15years.Hehasanextensivebackgroundinsoftwaredevelopment,includingtechnicalsupport,qualityassurance,anddocumentation.HeisalsothecreatorofLinuxC Part 1 – Introduction.........................................................................1
    1 – Introduction................................................................................................2
    Why Use The Command Line?.......................................................................................2
    What This Book Is About.................................................................................................3
    Who Should Read This Book..........................................................................................3
    What's In This Book.........................................................................................................4
    How To Read This Book..................................................................................................5
    Prerequisites...............................................................................................................5
    Why I Don't Call It “GNU/Linux”.............................................................................5
    Acknowledgments...........................................................................................................6
    Your Feedback Is Needed!..............................................................................................7
    Further Reading...............................................................................................................7
    Colophon.........................................................................................................................7
    Part 2 – Learning The Shell..............................................................9
    2 – What Is The Shell?...................................................................................10
    Terminal Emulators........................................................................................................10
    Your First Keystrokes....................................................................................................10
    Command History.....................................................................................................11
    Cursor Movement.....................................................................................................11
    A Few Words About Mice And Focus...................................................................11
    Try Some Simple Commands........................................................................................12
    Ending A Terminal Session............................................................................................13
    The Console Behind The Curtain........................................................................13
    Further Reading.............................................................................................................13
    3 – Navigation.................................................................................................14
    Understanding The File System Tree............................................................................14
    The Current Working Directory......................................................................................14
    Listing The Contents Of A Directory..............................................................................15
    Changing The Current Working Directory.....................................................................16
    Absolute Pathnames................................................................................................16
    Relative Pathnames.................................................................................................16
    Some Helpful Shortcuts............................................................................................18
    Important Facts About Filenames........................................................................18
    4 – Exploring The System.............................................................................20
    More Fun With ls...........................................................................................................20
    Options And Arguments............................................................................................21
    A Longer Look At Long Format.................................................................................22
    Determining A File's Type With file................................................................................23
    Viewing File Contents With less....................................................................................24
    What Is “Text”?.....................................................................................................24
    Less Is More........................................................................................................26
    A Guided Tour................................................................................................................26
    Symbolic Links...............................................................................................................29
    Hard Links.....................................................................................................................30
    Further Reading.............................................................................................................30
    5 – Manipulating Files And Directories........................................................31
    Wildcards.......................................................................................................................31
    Character Ranges................................................................................................33
    Wildcards Work In The GUI Too..........................................................................33
    mkdir – Create Directories.............................................................................................34
    cp – Copy Files And Directories....................................................................................34
    Useful Options And Examples..................................................................................35
    mv – Move And Rename Files......................................................................................36
    Useful Options And Examples..................................................................................36
    rm – Remove Files And Directories...............................................................................37
    Useful Options And Examples..................................................................................37
    Be Careful With rm!.............................................................................................38
    ln – Create Links............................................................................................................39
    Hard Links................................................................................................................39
    Symbolic Links..........................................................................................................40
    Let's Build A Playground................................................................................................40
    Creating Directories..................................................................................................40
    Copying Files............................................................................................................41
    Moving And Renaming Files.....................................................................................42
    Creating Hard Links..................................................................................................43
    Creating Symbolic Links...........................................................................................44
    Removing Files And Directories...............................................................................45
    Creating Symlinks With The GUI.........................................................................47
    Summing Up.............................................................................................................47
    6 – Working With Commands........................................................................48
    What Exactly Are Commands?......................................................................................48
    Identifying Commands...................................................................................................49
    type – Display A Command's Type...........................................................................49
    which – Display An Executable's Location...............................................................49
    Getting A Command's Documentation..........................................................................50
    help – Get Help For Shell Builtins............................................................................50
    --help – Display Usage Information..........................................................................51
    man – Display A Program's Manual Page................................................................51
    apropos – Display Appropriate Commands..............................................................53
    whatis – Display A Very Brief Description Of A Command.......................................53
    The Most Brutal Man Page Of Them All..............................................................53
    info – Display A Program's Info Entry.......................................................................54
    README And Other Program Documentation Files................................................55
    Creating Your Own Commands With alias....................................................................56
    Revisiting Old Friends...................................................................................................58
    Further Reading.............................................................................................................58
    7 – Redirection................................................................................................59
    Standard Input, Output, And Error.................................................................................59
    Redirecting Standard Output.........................................................................................60
    Redirecting Standard Error............................................................................................61
    Redirecting Standard Output And Standard Error To One File................................62
    Disposing Of Unwanted Output................................................................................63
    /dev/null In Unix Culture......................................................................................63
    Redirecting Standard Input............................................................................................63
    cat – Concatenate Files............................................................................................63
    Pipelines........................................................................................................................65
    Filters........................................................................................................................66
    uniq - Report Or Omit Repeated Lines....................................................................66
    wc – Print Line, Word, And Byte Counts..................................................................67
    grep – Print Lines Matching A Pattern......................................................................67
    head / tail – Print First / Last Part Of Files................................................................68
    tee – Read From Stdin And Output To Stdout And Files..........................................69
    Summing Up..................................................................................................................70
    Linux Is About Imagination..................................................................................70
    8 – Seeing The World As The Shell Sees It..................................................72
    Expansion......................................................................................................................72
    Pathname Expansion...............................................................................................73
    Pathname Expansion Of Hidden Files.................................................................74
    Tilde Expansion........................................................................................................74
    Arithmetic Expansion................................................................................................75
    Brace Expansion......................................................................................................76
    Parameter Expansion...............................................................................................77
    Command Substitution.............................................................................................78
    Quoting..........................................................................................................................79
    Double Quotes..........................................................................................................79
    Single Quotes...........................................................................................................81
    Escaping Characters................................................................................................82
    Backslash Escape Sequences............................................................................82
    Summing Up..................................................................................................................83
    Further Reading.............................................................................................................83
    9 – Advanced Keyboard Tricks.....................................................................84
    Command Line Editing..................................................................................................84
    Cursor Movement.....................................................................................................84
    Modifying Text...........................................................................................................85
    Cutting And Pasting (Killing And Yanking) Text........................................................85
    The Meta Key......................................................................................................86
    Completion....................................................................................................................86
    Programmable Completion..................................................................................88
    Using History.................................................................................................................88
    Searching History.....................................................................................................89
    History Expansion.....................................................................................................91
    script....................................................................................................................91
    Summing Up..................................................................................................................92
    Further Reading.............................................................................................................92
    10 – Permissions............................................................................................93
    Owners, Group Members, And Everybody Else............................................................94
    Reading, Writing, And Executing...................................................................................95
    chmod – Change file mode.......................................................................................97
    What The Heck Is Octal?.....................................................................................98
    Setting File Mode With The GUI.............................................................................100
    umask – Set Default Permissions..........................................................................101
    Some Special Permissions................................................................................103
    Changing Identities......................................................................................................104
    su – Run A Shell With Substitute User And Group IDs..........................................105
    sudo – Execute A Command As Another User.......................................................106
    Ubuntu And sudo...............................................................................................107
    chown – Change File Owner And Group................................................................107
    chgrp – Change Group Ownership.........................................................................109
    Exercising Our Privileges............................................................................................109
    Changing Your Password.............................................................................................111
    Further Reading...........................................................................................................112
    11 – Processes..............................................................................................113
    How A Process Works.................................................................................................113
    Viewing Processes......................................................................................................114
    Viewing Processes Dynamically With top...............................................................116
    Controlling Processes..................................................................................................118
    Interrupting A Process.............................................................................................119
    Putting A Process In The Background....................................................................119
    Returning A Process To The Foreground...............................................................120
    Stopping (Pausing) A Process................................................................................121
    Signals.........................................................................................................................122
    Sending Signals To Processes With kill.................................................................122
    Sending Signals To Multiple Processes With killall................................................125
    More Process Related Commands.............................................................................125
    Part 3 – Configuration And The Environment.............................127
    12 – The Environment..................................................................................128
    What Is Stored In The Environment?..........................................................................128
    Examining The Environment..................................................................................128
    Some Interesting Variables.....................................................................................130
    How Is The Environment Established?.......................................................................131
    What's In A Startup File?........................................................................................132
    Modifying The Environment.........................................................................................134
    Which Files Should We Modify?.............................................................................134
    Text Editors.............................................................................................................134
    Using A Text Editor.................................................................................................135
    Why Comments Are Important..........................................................................138
    Activating Our Changes..........................................................................................139
    Summing Up................................................................................................................139
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................139
    13 – A Gentle Introduction To vi.................................................................140
    Why We Should Learn vi.............................................................................................140
    A Little Background ....................................................................................................141
    Starting And Stopping vi..............................................................................................141
    Compatibility Mode............................................................................................142
    Editing Modes..............................................................................................................143
    Entering Insert Mode..............................................................................................144
    Saving Our Work....................................................................................................144
    Moving The Cursor Around.........................................................................................145
    Basic Editing................................................................................................................146
    Appending Text.......................................................................................................146
    Opening A Line.......................................................................................................147
    Deleting Text...........................................................................................................148
    Cutting, Copying And Pasting Text.........................................................................149
    Joining Lines...........................................................................................................151
    Search And Replace....................................................................................................151
    Searching Within A Line..........................................................................................151
    Searching The Entire File.......................................................................................151
    Global Search And Replace...................................................................................152
    Editing Multiple Files...................................................................................................154
    Switching Between Files.........................................................................................155
    Opening Additional Files For Editing......................................................................155
    Copying Content From One File Into Another........................................................156
    Inserting An Entire File Into Another.......................................................................157
    Saving Our Work.........................................................................................................158
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................159
    14 – Customizing The Prompt.....................................................................160
    Anatomy Of A Prompt..................................................................................................160
    Trying Some Alternate Prompt Designs......................................................................162
    Adding Color................................................................................................................163
    Terminal Confusion............................................................................................163
    Moving The Cursor......................................................................................................166
    Saving The Prompt......................................................................................................167
    Summing Up................................................................................................................167
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................168
    Part 4 – Common Tasks And Essential Tools.............................169
    15 – Package Management..........................................................................170
    Packaging Systems.....................................................................................................170
    How A Package System Works...................................................................................171
    Package Files.........................................................................................................171
    Repositories............................................................................................................171
    Dependencies.........................................................................................................172
    High And Low-level Package Tools........................................................................172
    Common Package Management Tasks.......................................................................173
    Finding A Package In A Repository........................................................................173
    Installing A Package From A Repository.................................................................173
    Installing A Package From A Package File.............................................................174
    Removing A Package.............................................................................................174
    Updating Packages From A Repository..................................................................175
    Upgrading A Package From A Package File...........................................................175
    Listing Installed Packages......................................................................................176
    Determining If A Package Is Installed.....................................................................176
    Displaying Info About An Installed Package...........................................................177
    Finding Which Package Installed A File.................................................................177
    Summing Up................................................................................................................177
    The Linux Software Installation Myth.................................................................178
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................179
    16 – Storage Media.......................................................................................180
    Mounting And Unmounting Storage Devices..............................................................180
    Viewing A List Of Mounted File Systems................................................................182
    Why Unmounting Is Important...........................................................................185
    Determining Device Names....................................................................................186
    Creating New File Systems.........................................................................................189
    Manipulating Partitions With fdisk..........................................................................189
    Creating A New File System With mkfs..................................................................192
    Testing And Repairing File Systems............................................................................193
    What The fsck?..................................................................................................193
    Formatting Floppy Disks..............................................................................................193
    Moving Data Directly To/From Devices.......................................................................194
    Creating CD-ROM Images..........................................................................................195
    Creating An Image Copy Of A CD-ROM.................................................................195
    Creating An Image From A Collection Of Files.......................................................195
    A Program By Any Other Name.........................................................................196
    Writing CD-ROM Images.............................................................................................196
    Mounting An ISO Image Directly............................................................................196
    Blanking A Re-Writable CD-ROM...........................................................................197
    Writing An Image....................................................................................................197
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................197
    Extra Credit..................................................................................................................197
    17 – Networking............................................................................................199
    Examining And Monitoring A Network.........................................................................200
    ping.........................................................................................................................200
    traceroute...............................................................................................................201
    netstat.....................................................................................................................202
    Transporting Files Over A Network..............................................................................203
    ftp............................................................................................................................204
    lftp – A Better ftp.....................................................................................................206
    wget........................................................................................................................206
    Secure Communication With Remote Hosts...............................................................206
    ssh..........................................................................................................................207
    Tunneling With SSH..........................................................................................210
    scp And sftp............................................................................................................211
    An SSH Client For Windows?............................................................................212
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................212
    18 – Searching For Files..............................................................................213
    locate – Find Files The Easy Way...............................................................................213
    Where Does The locate Database Come From?..............................................215
    find – Find Files The Hard Way...................................................................................215
    Tests.......................................................................................................................216
    Operators................................................................................................................218
    Predefined Actions..................................................................................................221
    User Defined Actions..............................................................................................223
    Improving Efficiency...............................................................................................224
    xargs.......................................................................................................................224
    Dealing With Funny Filenames..........................................................................225
    A Return To The Playground..................................................................................226
    Options...................................................................................................................228
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................229
    19 – Archiving And Backup.........................................................................230
    Compressing Files.......................................................................................................230
    gzip.........................................................................................................................231
    bzip2.......................................................................................................................233
    Don’t Be Compressive Compulsive...................................................................234
    Archiving Files.............................................................................................................234
    tar............................................................................................................................234
    zip...........................................................................................................................240
    Synchronizing Files And Directories............................................................................242
    Using rsync Over A Network...................................................................................245
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................246
    20 – Regular Expressions...........................................................................247
    What Are Regular Expressions?............................................................................247
    grep.............................................................................................................................247
    Metacharacters And Literals........................................................................................249
    The Any Character......................................................................................................250
    Anchors.......................................................................................................................251
    A Crossword Puzzle Helper...............................................................................251
    Bracket Expressions And Character Classes..............................................................252
    Negation.................................................................................................................252
    Traditional Character Ranges.................................................................................253
    POSIX Character Classes......................................................................................254
    Reverting To Traditional Collation Order............................................................257
    POSIX Basic Vs. Extended Regular Expressions.......................................................258
    POSIX................................................................................................................258
    Alternation...................................................................................................................259
    Quantifiers...................................................................................................................260
    ? - Match An Element Zero Or One Time...............................................................260
    * - Match An Element Zero Or More Times............................................................261
    + - Match An Element One Or More Times............................................................262
    { } - Match An Element A Specific Number Of Times..............................................262
    Putting Regular Expressions To Work.........................................................................263
    Validating A Phone List With grep...........................................................................263
    Finding Ugly Filenames With find...........................................................................264
    Searching For Files With locate.............................................................................265
    Searching For Text In less And vim........................................................................265
    Summing Up................................................................................................................267
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................267
    21 – Text Processing....................................................................................268
    Applications Of Text.....................................................................................................268
    Documents.............................................................................................................269
    Web Pages.............................................................................................................269
    Email.......................................................................................................................269
    Printer Output.........................................................................................................269
    Program Source Code............................................................................................269
    Revisiting Some Old Friends.......................................................................................269
    cat...........................................................................................................................270
    MS-DOS Text Vs. Unix Text...............................................................................271
    sort..........................................................................................................................271
    uniq.........................................................................................................................279
    Slicing And Dicing........................................................................................................280
    cut...........................................................................................................................280
    Expanding Tabs.................................................................................................283
    paste.......................................................................................................................284
    join..........................................................................................................................285
    Comparing Text...........................................................................................................287
    comm......................................................................................................................288
    diff...........................................................................................................................288
    patch.......................................................................................................................291
    Editing On The Fly.......................................................................................................292
    tr..............................................................................................................................292
    ROT13: The Not-So-Secret Decoder Ring........................................................294
    sed..........................................................................................................................295
    People Who Like sed Also Like.........................................................................303
    aspell......................................................................................................................303
    Summing Up................................................................................................................307
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................307
    Extra Credit..................................................................................................................308
    22 – Formatting Output................................................................................309
    Simple Formatting Tools..............................................................................................309
    nl – Number Lines..................................................................................................309
    fold – Wrap Each Line To A Specified Length........................................................313
    fmt – A Simple Text Formatter................................................................................313
    pr – Format Text For Printing..................................................................................317
    printf – Format And Print Data................................................................................318
    Document Formatting Systems...................................................................................321
    groff.........................................................................................................................322
    Summing Up................................................................................................................328
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................328
    23 – Printing..................................................................................................330
    A Brief History Of Printing............................................................................................330
    Printing In The Dim Times......................................................................................330
    Character-based Printers.......................................................................................331
    Graphical Printers...................................................................................................332
    Printing With Linux......................................................................................................333
    Preparing Files For Printing.........................................................................................333
    pr – Convert Text Files For Printing........................................................................333
    Sending A Print Job To A Printer..................................................................................335
    lpr – Print Files (Berkeley Style).............................................................................335
    lp – Print Files (System V Style).............................................................................336
    Another Option: a2ps..............................................................................................337
    Monitoring And Controlling Print Jobs.........................................................................340
    lpstat – Display Print System Status......................................................................340
    lpq – Display Printer Queue Status........................................................................341
    lprm / cancel – Cancel Print Jobs..........................................................................342
    Summing Up................................................................................................................342
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................342
    24 – Compiling Programs............................................................................344
    What Is Compiling?.....................................................................................................344
    Are All Programs Compiled?..................................................................................345
    Compiling A C Program...............................................................................................346
    Obtaining The Source Code...................................................................................346
    Examining The Source Tree...................................................................................348
    Building The Program.............................................................................................350
    Installing The Program...........................................................................................354
    Summing Up................................................................................................................354
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................355
    Part 5 – Writing Shell Scripts.......................................................357
    25 – Writing Your First Script......................................................................358
    What Are Shell Scripts?...............................................................................................358
    How To Write A Shell Script.........................................................................................358
    Script File Format........................................................................................................359
    Executable Permissions..............................................................................................360
    Script File Location......................................................................................................360
    Good Locations For Scripts....................................................................................362
    More Formatting Tricks................................................................................................362
    Long Option Names................................................................................................362
    Indentation And Line Continuation.........................................................................362
    Configuring vim For Script Writing.....................................................................363
    Summing Up................................................................................................................364
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................364
    26 – Starting A Project.................................................................................365
    First Stage: Minimal Document...................................................................................365
    Second Stage: Adding A Little Data............................................................................367
    Variables And Constants.............................................................................................368
    Assigning Values To Variables And Constants.......................................................371
    Here Documents.........................................................................................................372
    Summing Up................................................................................................................375
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................375
    27 – Top-Down Design.................................................................................376
    Shell Functions............................................................................................................377
    Local Variables............................................................................................................380
    Keep Scripts Running..................................................................................................381
    Shell Functions In Your .bashrc File..................................................................384
    Summing Up................................................................................................................384
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................384
    28 – Flow Control: Branching With if.........................................................385
    if...................................................................................................................................385
    Exit Status...................................................................................................................386
    test...............................................................................................................................388
    File Expressions.....................................................................................................388
    String Expressions..................................................................................................391
    Integer Expressions................................................................................................392
    A More Modern Version Of test...................................................................................393
    (( )) - Designed For Integers........................................................................................395
    Combining Expressions...............................................................................................396
    Portability Is The Hobgoblin Of Little Minds.......................................................398
    Control Operators: Another Way To Branch................................................................399
    Summing Up................................................................................................................399
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................400
    29 – Reading Keyboard Input......................................................................401
    read – Read Values From Standard Input...................................................................402
    Options...................................................................................................................404
    IFS..........................................................................................................................406
    You Can’t Pipe read...........................................................................................407
    Validating Input............................................................................................................408
    Menus..........................................................................................................................409
    Summing Up................................................................................................................411
    Extra Credit.............................................................................................................411
    Further Reading...........................................................................................................411
    30 – Flow Control: Looping With while / until...........................................412
    Looping........................................................................................................................412
    while........................................................................................................................412
    Breaking Out Of A Loop...............................................................................................415
    until.........................................................................................................................416
    Reading Files With Loops...........................................................................................417
    Summing Up................................................................................................................418
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................418
    31 – Troubleshooting...................................................................................419
    Syntactic Errors...........................................................................................................419
    Missing Quotes.......................................................................................................420
    Missing Or Unexpected Tokens..............................................................................420
    Unanticipated Expansions......................................................................................421
    Logical Errors .............................................................................................................423
    Defensive Programming.........................................................................................423
    Verifying Input.........................................................................................................425
    Design Is A Function Of Time............................................................................425
    Testing.........................................................................................................................425
    Test Cases..............................................................................................................426
    Debugging...................................................................................................................427
    Finding The Problem Area......................................................................................427
    Tracing....................................................................................................................427
    Examining Values During Execution......................................................................430
    Summing Up................................................................................................................430
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................431
    32 – Flow Control: Branching With case...................................................432
    case.............................................................................................................................432
    Patterns..................................................................................................................434
    Summing Up................................................................................................................436
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................436
    33 – Positional Parameters.........................................................................437
    Accessing The Command Line...................................................................................437
    Determining The Number of Arguments.................................................................438
    shift – Getting Access To Many Arguments............................................................439
    Simple Applications................................................................................................440
    Using Positional Parameters With Shell Functions................................................441
    Handling Positional Parameters En Masse.................................................................442
    A More Complete Application......................................................................................444
    Summing Up................................................................................................................447
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................450
    34 – Flow Control: Looping With for..........................................................451
    for: Traditional Shell Form...........................................................................................451
    Why i?................................................................................................................453
    for: C Language Form.................................................................................................454
    Summing Up................................................................................................................455
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................456
    35 – Strings And Numbers..........................................................................457
    Parameter Expansion..................................................................................................457
    Basic Parameters...................................................................................................457
    Expansions To Manage Empty Variables...............................................................458
    Expansions That Return Variable Names..............................................................460
    String Operations....................................................................................................460
    Arithmetic Evaluation And Expansion.........................................................................463
    Number Bases........................................................................................................464
    Unary Operators.....................................................................................................464
    Simple Arithmetic....................................................................................................464
    Assignment.............................................................................................................466
    Bit Operations.........................................................................................................468
    Logic.......................................................................................................................469
    bc – An Arbitrary Precision Calculator Language........................................................472
    Using bc..................................................................................................................473
    An Example Script..................................................................................................473
    Summing Up................................................................................................................475
    Extra Credit..................................................................................................................475
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................475
    36 – Arrays....................................................................................................476
    What Are Arrays?........................................................................................................476
    Creating An Array........................................................................................................476
    Assigning Values To An Array......................................................................................477
    Accessing Array Elements...........................................................................................478
    Array Operations.........................................................................................................480
    Outputting The Entire Contents Of An Array..........................................................480
    Determining The Number Of Array Elements.........................................................480
    Finding The Subscripts Used By An Array.............................................................481
    Adding Elements To The End Of An Array.............................................................481
    Sorting An Array......................................................................................................482
    Deleting An Array....................................................................................................482
    Summing Up................................................................................................................483
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................484
    37 – Exotica...................................................................................................485
    Group Commands And Subshells...............................................................................485
    Process Substitution...............................................................................................486
    Traps............................................................................................................................488
    Temporary Files.................................................................................................491
    Asynchronous Execution.............................................................................................492
    wait.........................................................................................................................492
    Named Pipes...............................................................................................................493
    Setting Up A Named Pipe.......................................................................................494
    Using Named Pipes................................................................................................494
    Summing Up................................................................................................................495
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................495
  • 内容简介:
    You'veexperiencedtheshiny,point-and-clicksurfaceofyourLinuxcomputer-nowdivebelowandexploreitsdepthswiththepowerofthecommandline.TheLinuxCommandLinetakesyoufromyourveryfirstterminalkeystrokestowritingfullprogramsinBas
  • 作者简介:
    WilliamE.Shotts,Jr.hasbeenasoftwareprofessionalandavidLinuxuserformorethan15years.Hehasanextensivebackgroundinsoftwaredevelopment,includingtechnicalsupport,qualityassurance,anddocumentation.HeisalsothecreatorofLinuxC
  • 目录:
    Part 1 – Introduction.........................................................................1
    1 – Introduction................................................................................................2
    Why Use The Command Line?.......................................................................................2
    What This Book Is About.................................................................................................3
    Who Should Read This Book..........................................................................................3
    What's In This Book.........................................................................................................4
    How To Read This Book..................................................................................................5
    Prerequisites...............................................................................................................5
    Why I Don't Call It “GNU/Linux”.............................................................................5
    Acknowledgments...........................................................................................................6
    Your Feedback Is Needed!..............................................................................................7
    Further Reading...............................................................................................................7
    Colophon.........................................................................................................................7
    Part 2 – Learning The Shell..............................................................9
    2 – What Is The Shell?...................................................................................10
    Terminal Emulators........................................................................................................10
    Your First Keystrokes....................................................................................................10
    Command History.....................................................................................................11
    Cursor Movement.....................................................................................................11
    A Few Words About Mice And Focus...................................................................11
    Try Some Simple Commands........................................................................................12
    Ending A Terminal Session............................................................................................13
    The Console Behind The Curtain........................................................................13
    Further Reading.............................................................................................................13
    3 – Navigation.................................................................................................14
    Understanding The File System Tree............................................................................14
    The Current Working Directory......................................................................................14
    Listing The Contents Of A Directory..............................................................................15
    Changing The Current Working Directory.....................................................................16
    Absolute Pathnames................................................................................................16
    Relative Pathnames.................................................................................................16
    Some Helpful Shortcuts............................................................................................18
    Important Facts About Filenames........................................................................18
    4 – Exploring The System.............................................................................20
    More Fun With ls...........................................................................................................20
    Options And Arguments............................................................................................21
    A Longer Look At Long Format.................................................................................22
    Determining A File's Type With file................................................................................23
    Viewing File Contents With less....................................................................................24
    What Is “Text”?.....................................................................................................24
    Less Is More........................................................................................................26
    A Guided Tour................................................................................................................26
    Symbolic Links...............................................................................................................29
    Hard Links.....................................................................................................................30
    Further Reading.............................................................................................................30
    5 – Manipulating Files And Directories........................................................31
    Wildcards.......................................................................................................................31
    Character Ranges................................................................................................33
    Wildcards Work In The GUI Too..........................................................................33
    mkdir – Create Directories.............................................................................................34
    cp – Copy Files And Directories....................................................................................34
    Useful Options And Examples..................................................................................35
    mv – Move And Rename Files......................................................................................36
    Useful Options And Examples..................................................................................36
    rm – Remove Files And Directories...............................................................................37
    Useful Options And Examples..................................................................................37
    Be Careful With rm!.............................................................................................38
    ln – Create Links............................................................................................................39
    Hard Links................................................................................................................39
    Symbolic Links..........................................................................................................40
    Let's Build A Playground................................................................................................40
    Creating Directories..................................................................................................40
    Copying Files............................................................................................................41
    Moving And Renaming Files.....................................................................................42
    Creating Hard Links..................................................................................................43
    Creating Symbolic Links...........................................................................................44
    Removing Files And Directories...............................................................................45
    Creating Symlinks With The GUI.........................................................................47
    Summing Up.............................................................................................................47
    6 – Working With Commands........................................................................48
    What Exactly Are Commands?......................................................................................48
    Identifying Commands...................................................................................................49
    type – Display A Command's Type...........................................................................49
    which – Display An Executable's Location...............................................................49
    Getting A Command's Documentation..........................................................................50
    help – Get Help For Shell Builtins............................................................................50
    --help – Display Usage Information..........................................................................51
    man – Display A Program's Manual Page................................................................51
    apropos – Display Appropriate Commands..............................................................53
    whatis – Display A Very Brief Description Of A Command.......................................53
    The Most Brutal Man Page Of Them All..............................................................53
    info – Display A Program's Info Entry.......................................................................54
    README And Other Program Documentation Files................................................55
    Creating Your Own Commands With alias....................................................................56
    Revisiting Old Friends...................................................................................................58
    Further Reading.............................................................................................................58
    7 – Redirection................................................................................................59
    Standard Input, Output, And Error.................................................................................59
    Redirecting Standard Output.........................................................................................60
    Redirecting Standard Error............................................................................................61
    Redirecting Standard Output And Standard Error To One File................................62
    Disposing Of Unwanted Output................................................................................63
    /dev/null In Unix Culture......................................................................................63
    Redirecting Standard Input............................................................................................63
    cat – Concatenate Files............................................................................................63
    Pipelines........................................................................................................................65
    Filters........................................................................................................................66
    uniq - Report Or Omit Repeated Lines....................................................................66
    wc – Print Line, Word, And Byte Counts..................................................................67
    grep – Print Lines Matching A Pattern......................................................................67
    head / tail – Print First / Last Part Of Files................................................................68
    tee – Read From Stdin And Output To Stdout And Files..........................................69
    Summing Up..................................................................................................................70
    Linux Is About Imagination..................................................................................70
    8 – Seeing The World As The Shell Sees It..................................................72
    Expansion......................................................................................................................72
    Pathname Expansion...............................................................................................73
    Pathname Expansion Of Hidden Files.................................................................74
    Tilde Expansion........................................................................................................74
    Arithmetic Expansion................................................................................................75
    Brace Expansion......................................................................................................76
    Parameter Expansion...............................................................................................77
    Command Substitution.............................................................................................78
    Quoting..........................................................................................................................79
    Double Quotes..........................................................................................................79
    Single Quotes...........................................................................................................81
    Escaping Characters................................................................................................82
    Backslash Escape Sequences............................................................................82
    Summing Up..................................................................................................................83
    Further Reading.............................................................................................................83
    9 – Advanced Keyboard Tricks.....................................................................84
    Command Line Editing..................................................................................................84
    Cursor Movement.....................................................................................................84
    Modifying Text...........................................................................................................85
    Cutting And Pasting (Killing And Yanking) Text........................................................85
    The Meta Key......................................................................................................86
    Completion....................................................................................................................86
    Programmable Completion..................................................................................88
    Using History.................................................................................................................88
    Searching History.....................................................................................................89
    History Expansion.....................................................................................................91
    script....................................................................................................................91
    Summing Up..................................................................................................................92
    Further Reading.............................................................................................................92
    10 – Permissions............................................................................................93
    Owners, Group Members, And Everybody Else............................................................94
    Reading, Writing, And Executing...................................................................................95
    chmod – Change file mode.......................................................................................97
    What The Heck Is Octal?.....................................................................................98
    Setting File Mode With The GUI.............................................................................100
    umask – Set Default Permissions..........................................................................101
    Some Special Permissions................................................................................103
    Changing Identities......................................................................................................104
    su – Run A Shell With Substitute User And Group IDs..........................................105
    sudo – Execute A Command As Another User.......................................................106
    Ubuntu And sudo...............................................................................................107
    chown – Change File Owner And Group................................................................107
    chgrp – Change Group Ownership.........................................................................109
    Exercising Our Privileges............................................................................................109
    Changing Your Password.............................................................................................111
    Further Reading...........................................................................................................112
    11 – Processes..............................................................................................113
    How A Process Works.................................................................................................113
    Viewing Processes......................................................................................................114
    Viewing Processes Dynamically With top...............................................................116
    Controlling Processes..................................................................................................118
    Interrupting A Process.............................................................................................119
    Putting A Process In The Background....................................................................119
    Returning A Process To The Foreground...............................................................120
    Stopping (Pausing) A Process................................................................................121
    Signals.........................................................................................................................122
    Sending Signals To Processes With kill.................................................................122
    Sending Signals To Multiple Processes With killall................................................125
    More Process Related Commands.............................................................................125
    Part 3 – Configuration And The Environment.............................127
    12 – The Environment..................................................................................128
    What Is Stored In The Environment?..........................................................................128
    Examining The Environment..................................................................................128
    Some Interesting Variables.....................................................................................130
    How Is The Environment Established?.......................................................................131
    What's In A Startup File?........................................................................................132
    Modifying The Environment.........................................................................................134
    Which Files Should We Modify?.............................................................................134
    Text Editors.............................................................................................................134
    Using A Text Editor.................................................................................................135
    Why Comments Are Important..........................................................................138
    Activating Our Changes..........................................................................................139
    Summing Up................................................................................................................139
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................139
    13 – A Gentle Introduction To vi.................................................................140
    Why We Should Learn vi.............................................................................................140
    A Little Background ....................................................................................................141
    Starting And Stopping vi..............................................................................................141
    Compatibility Mode............................................................................................142
    Editing Modes..............................................................................................................143
    Entering Insert Mode..............................................................................................144
    Saving Our Work....................................................................................................144
    Moving The Cursor Around.........................................................................................145
    Basic Editing................................................................................................................146
    Appending Text.......................................................................................................146
    Opening A Line.......................................................................................................147
    Deleting Text...........................................................................................................148
    Cutting, Copying And Pasting Text.........................................................................149
    Joining Lines...........................................................................................................151
    Search And Replace....................................................................................................151
    Searching Within A Line..........................................................................................151
    Searching The Entire File.......................................................................................151
    Global Search And Replace...................................................................................152
    Editing Multiple Files...................................................................................................154
    Switching Between Files.........................................................................................155
    Opening Additional Files For Editing......................................................................155
    Copying Content From One File Into Another........................................................156
    Inserting An Entire File Into Another.......................................................................157
    Saving Our Work.........................................................................................................158
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................159
    14 – Customizing The Prompt.....................................................................160
    Anatomy Of A Prompt..................................................................................................160
    Trying Some Alternate Prompt Designs......................................................................162
    Adding Color................................................................................................................163
    Terminal Confusion............................................................................................163
    Moving The Cursor......................................................................................................166
    Saving The Prompt......................................................................................................167
    Summing Up................................................................................................................167
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................168
    Part 4 – Common Tasks And Essential Tools.............................169
    15 – Package Management..........................................................................170
    Packaging Systems.....................................................................................................170
    How A Package System Works...................................................................................171
    Package Files.........................................................................................................171
    Repositories............................................................................................................171
    Dependencies.........................................................................................................172
    High And Low-level Package Tools........................................................................172
    Common Package Management Tasks.......................................................................173
    Finding A Package In A Repository........................................................................173
    Installing A Package From A Repository.................................................................173
    Installing A Package From A Package File.............................................................174
    Removing A Package.............................................................................................174
    Updating Packages From A Repository..................................................................175
    Upgrading A Package From A Package File...........................................................175
    Listing Installed Packages......................................................................................176
    Determining If A Package Is Installed.....................................................................176
    Displaying Info About An Installed Package...........................................................177
    Finding Which Package Installed A File.................................................................177
    Summing Up................................................................................................................177
    The Linux Software Installation Myth.................................................................178
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................179
    16 – Storage Media.......................................................................................180
    Mounting And Unmounting Storage Devices..............................................................180
    Viewing A List Of Mounted File Systems................................................................182
    Why Unmounting Is Important...........................................................................185
    Determining Device Names....................................................................................186
    Creating New File Systems.........................................................................................189
    Manipulating Partitions With fdisk..........................................................................189
    Creating A New File System With mkfs..................................................................192
    Testing And Repairing File Systems............................................................................193
    What The fsck?..................................................................................................193
    Formatting Floppy Disks..............................................................................................193
    Moving Data Directly To/From Devices.......................................................................194
    Creating CD-ROM Images..........................................................................................195
    Creating An Image Copy Of A CD-ROM.................................................................195
    Creating An Image From A Collection Of Files.......................................................195
    A Program By Any Other Name.........................................................................196
    Writing CD-ROM Images.............................................................................................196
    Mounting An ISO Image Directly............................................................................196
    Blanking A Re-Writable CD-ROM...........................................................................197
    Writing An Image....................................................................................................197
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................197
    Extra Credit..................................................................................................................197
    17 – Networking............................................................................................199
    Examining And Monitoring A Network.........................................................................200
    ping.........................................................................................................................200
    traceroute...............................................................................................................201
    netstat.....................................................................................................................202
    Transporting Files Over A Network..............................................................................203
    ftp............................................................................................................................204
    lftp – A Better ftp.....................................................................................................206
    wget........................................................................................................................206
    Secure Communication With Remote Hosts...............................................................206
    ssh..........................................................................................................................207
    Tunneling With SSH..........................................................................................210
    scp And sftp............................................................................................................211
    An SSH Client For Windows?............................................................................212
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................212
    18 – Searching For Files..............................................................................213
    locate – Find Files The Easy Way...............................................................................213
    Where Does The locate Database Come From?..............................................215
    find – Find Files The Hard Way...................................................................................215
    Tests.......................................................................................................................216
    Operators................................................................................................................218
    Predefined Actions..................................................................................................221
    User Defined Actions..............................................................................................223
    Improving Efficiency...............................................................................................224
    xargs.......................................................................................................................224
    Dealing With Funny Filenames..........................................................................225
    A Return To The Playground..................................................................................226
    Options...................................................................................................................228
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................229
    19 – Archiving And Backup.........................................................................230
    Compressing Files.......................................................................................................230
    gzip.........................................................................................................................231
    bzip2.......................................................................................................................233
    Don’t Be Compressive Compulsive...................................................................234
    Archiving Files.............................................................................................................234
    tar............................................................................................................................234
    zip...........................................................................................................................240
    Synchronizing Files And Directories............................................................................242
    Using rsync Over A Network...................................................................................245
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................246
    20 – Regular Expressions...........................................................................247
    What Are Regular Expressions?............................................................................247
    grep.............................................................................................................................247
    Metacharacters And Literals........................................................................................249
    The Any Character......................................................................................................250
    Anchors.......................................................................................................................251
    A Crossword Puzzle Helper...............................................................................251
    Bracket Expressions And Character Classes..............................................................252
    Negation.................................................................................................................252
    Traditional Character Ranges.................................................................................253
    POSIX Character Classes......................................................................................254
    Reverting To Traditional Collation Order............................................................257
    POSIX Basic Vs. Extended Regular Expressions.......................................................258
    POSIX................................................................................................................258
    Alternation...................................................................................................................259
    Quantifiers...................................................................................................................260
    ? - Match An Element Zero Or One Time...............................................................260
    * - Match An Element Zero Or More Times............................................................261
    + - Match An Element One Or More Times............................................................262
    { } - Match An Element A Specific Number Of Times..............................................262
    Putting Regular Expressions To Work.........................................................................263
    Validating A Phone List With grep...........................................................................263
    Finding Ugly Filenames With find...........................................................................264
    Searching For Files With locate.............................................................................265
    Searching For Text In less And vim........................................................................265
    Summing Up................................................................................................................267
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................267
    21 – Text Processing....................................................................................268
    Applications Of Text.....................................................................................................268
    Documents.............................................................................................................269
    Web Pages.............................................................................................................269
    Email.......................................................................................................................269
    Printer Output.........................................................................................................269
    Program Source Code............................................................................................269
    Revisiting Some Old Friends.......................................................................................269
    cat...........................................................................................................................270
    MS-DOS Text Vs. Unix Text...............................................................................271
    sort..........................................................................................................................271
    uniq.........................................................................................................................279
    Slicing And Dicing........................................................................................................280
    cut...........................................................................................................................280
    Expanding Tabs.................................................................................................283
    paste.......................................................................................................................284
    join..........................................................................................................................285
    Comparing Text...........................................................................................................287
    comm......................................................................................................................288
    diff...........................................................................................................................288
    patch.......................................................................................................................291
    Editing On The Fly.......................................................................................................292
    tr..............................................................................................................................292
    ROT13: The Not-So-Secret Decoder Ring........................................................294
    sed..........................................................................................................................295
    People Who Like sed Also Like.........................................................................303
    aspell......................................................................................................................303
    Summing Up................................................................................................................307
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................307
    Extra Credit..................................................................................................................308
    22 – Formatting Output................................................................................309
    Simple Formatting Tools..............................................................................................309
    nl – Number Lines..................................................................................................309
    fold – Wrap Each Line To A Specified Length........................................................313
    fmt – A Simple Text Formatter................................................................................313
    pr – Format Text For Printing..................................................................................317
    printf – Format And Print Data................................................................................318
    Document Formatting Systems...................................................................................321
    groff.........................................................................................................................322
    Summing Up................................................................................................................328
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................328
    23 – Printing..................................................................................................330
    A Brief History Of Printing............................................................................................330
    Printing In The Dim Times......................................................................................330
    Character-based Printers.......................................................................................331
    Graphical Printers...................................................................................................332
    Printing With Linux......................................................................................................333
    Preparing Files For Printing.........................................................................................333
    pr – Convert Text Files For Printing........................................................................333
    Sending A Print Job To A Printer..................................................................................335
    lpr – Print Files (Berkeley Style).............................................................................335
    lp – Print Files (System V Style).............................................................................336
    Another Option: a2ps..............................................................................................337
    Monitoring And Controlling Print Jobs.........................................................................340
    lpstat – Display Print System Status......................................................................340
    lpq – Display Printer Queue Status........................................................................341
    lprm / cancel – Cancel Print Jobs..........................................................................342
    Summing Up................................................................................................................342
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................342
    24 – Compiling Programs............................................................................344
    What Is Compiling?.....................................................................................................344
    Are All Programs Compiled?..................................................................................345
    Compiling A C Program...............................................................................................346
    Obtaining The Source Code...................................................................................346
    Examining The Source Tree...................................................................................348
    Building The Program.............................................................................................350
    Installing The Program...........................................................................................354
    Summing Up................................................................................................................354
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................355
    Part 5 – Writing Shell Scripts.......................................................357
    25 – Writing Your First Script......................................................................358
    What Are Shell Scripts?...............................................................................................358
    How To Write A Shell Script.........................................................................................358
    Script File Format........................................................................................................359
    Executable Permissions..............................................................................................360
    Script File Location......................................................................................................360
    Good Locations For Scripts....................................................................................362
    More Formatting Tricks................................................................................................362
    Long Option Names................................................................................................362
    Indentation And Line Continuation.........................................................................362
    Configuring vim For Script Writing.....................................................................363
    Summing Up................................................................................................................364
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................364
    26 – Starting A Project.................................................................................365
    First Stage: Minimal Document...................................................................................365
    Second Stage: Adding A Little Data............................................................................367
    Variables And Constants.............................................................................................368
    Assigning Values To Variables And Constants.......................................................371
    Here Documents.........................................................................................................372
    Summing Up................................................................................................................375
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................375
    27 – Top-Down Design.................................................................................376
    Shell Functions............................................................................................................377
    Local Variables............................................................................................................380
    Keep Scripts Running..................................................................................................381
    Shell Functions In Your .bashrc File..................................................................384
    Summing Up................................................................................................................384
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................384
    28 – Flow Control: Branching With if.........................................................385
    if...................................................................................................................................385
    Exit Status...................................................................................................................386
    test...............................................................................................................................388
    File Expressions.....................................................................................................388
    String Expressions..................................................................................................391
    Integer Expressions................................................................................................392
    A More Modern Version Of test...................................................................................393
    (( )) - Designed For Integers........................................................................................395
    Combining Expressions...............................................................................................396
    Portability Is The Hobgoblin Of Little Minds.......................................................398
    Control Operators: Another Way To Branch................................................................399
    Summing Up................................................................................................................399
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................400
    29 – Reading Keyboard Input......................................................................401
    read – Read Values From Standard Input...................................................................402
    Options...................................................................................................................404
    IFS..........................................................................................................................406
    You Can’t Pipe read...........................................................................................407
    Validating Input............................................................................................................408
    Menus..........................................................................................................................409
    Summing Up................................................................................................................411
    Extra Credit.............................................................................................................411
    Further Reading...........................................................................................................411
    30 – Flow Control: Looping With while / until...........................................412
    Looping........................................................................................................................412
    while........................................................................................................................412
    Breaking Out Of A Loop...............................................................................................415
    until.........................................................................................................................416
    Reading Files With Loops...........................................................................................417
    Summing Up................................................................................................................418
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................418
    31 – Troubleshooting...................................................................................419
    Syntactic Errors...........................................................................................................419
    Missing Quotes.......................................................................................................420
    Missing Or Unexpected Tokens..............................................................................420
    Unanticipated Expansions......................................................................................421
    Logical Errors .............................................................................................................423
    Defensive Programming.........................................................................................423
    Verifying Input.........................................................................................................425
    Design Is A Function Of Time............................................................................425
    Testing.........................................................................................................................425
    Test Cases..............................................................................................................426
    Debugging...................................................................................................................427
    Finding The Problem Area......................................................................................427
    Tracing....................................................................................................................427
    Examining Values During Execution......................................................................430
    Summing Up................................................................................................................430
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................431
    32 – Flow Control: Branching With case...................................................432
    case.............................................................................................................................432
    Patterns..................................................................................................................434
    Summing Up................................................................................................................436
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................436
    33 – Positional Parameters.........................................................................437
    Accessing The Command Line...................................................................................437
    Determining The Number of Arguments.................................................................438
    shift – Getting Access To Many Arguments............................................................439
    Simple Applications................................................................................................440
    Using Positional Parameters With Shell Functions................................................441
    Handling Positional Parameters En Masse.................................................................442
    A More Complete Application......................................................................................444
    Summing Up................................................................................................................447
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................450
    34 – Flow Control: Looping With for..........................................................451
    for: Traditional Shell Form...........................................................................................451
    Why i?................................................................................................................453
    for: C Language Form.................................................................................................454
    Summing Up................................................................................................................455
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................456
    35 – Strings And Numbers..........................................................................457
    Parameter Expansion..................................................................................................457
    Basic Parameters...................................................................................................457
    Expansions To Manage Empty Variables...............................................................458
    Expansions That Return Variable Names..............................................................460
    String Operations....................................................................................................460
    Arithmetic Evaluation And Expansion.........................................................................463
    Number Bases........................................................................................................464
    Unary Operators.....................................................................................................464
    Simple Arithmetic....................................................................................................464
    Assignment.............................................................................................................466
    Bit Operations.........................................................................................................468
    Logic.......................................................................................................................469
    bc – An Arbitrary Precision Calculator Language........................................................472
    Using bc..................................................................................................................473
    An Example Script..................................................................................................473
    Summing Up................................................................................................................475
    Extra Credit..................................................................................................................475
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................475
    36 – Arrays....................................................................................................476
    What Are Arrays?........................................................................................................476
    Creating An Array........................................................................................................476
    Assigning Values To An Array......................................................................................477
    Accessing Array Elements...........................................................................................478
    Array Operations.........................................................................................................480
    Outputting The Entire Contents Of An Array..........................................................480
    Determining The Number Of Array Elements.........................................................480
    Finding The Subscripts Used By An Array.............................................................481
    Adding Elements To The End Of An Array.............................................................481
    Sorting An Array......................................................................................................482
    Deleting An Array....................................................................................................482
    Summing Up................................................................................................................483
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................484
    37 – Exotica...................................................................................................485
    Group Commands And Subshells...............................................................................485
    Process Substitution...............................................................................................486
    Traps............................................................................................................................488
    Temporary Files.................................................................................................491
    Asynchronous Execution.............................................................................................492
    wait.........................................................................................................................492
    Named Pipes...............................................................................................................493
    Setting Up A Named Pipe.......................................................................................494
    Using Named Pipes................................................................................................494
    Summing Up................................................................................................................495
    Further Reading..........................................................................................................495
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