固体废物处理与资源化原理及技术

固体废物处理与资源化原理及技术
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作者: 编著 ,
2021-03
版次: 1
ISBN: 9787122364296
定价: 88.00
装帧: 平装
开本: 16开
纸张: 胶版纸
页数: 309页
字数: 480千字
  • 《固体废物处理与资源化原理及技术》包括固体废物处理与资源化原理、生活垃圾源头分类与物流转运及环境卫生风险防控、生活垃圾填埋场稳定化过程、生活垃圾填埋场矿化垃圾资源化利用、生活垃圾焚烧发电与飞灰压块技术、城市污泥堆肥和有机垃圾资源转化、生活垃圾渗滤液处理技术、生活垃圾恶臭控制技术、危险废物碱介质处理技术、医疗废物收运与焚烧技术、污染工业建筑废物处理与利用等,具有技术创新性、工程实用性和理论系统性的特点。《固体废物处理与资源化原理及技术》可作为高等院校环境工程、环境生态工程、资源循环科学与工程等专业的研究生教学用书,还可供环境领域固体废物有关技术的研发、设计人员和教学人员参考,并可作资料数据库使用。 赵由才,同济大学环境学院,教授 博导,在生活垃圾填埋场稳定化、填埋场中矿化垃圾利用原理与技术、垃圾渗滤液处理、污泥填埋技术、危险废物固化和氧化锌矿清洁生产与资源利用方面作了创新性研究工作。研究领域主要是城市生活垃圾与危险废物处理与资源化以及贫锌矿的清洁生产工艺。多年来作为项目负责人承担国家 “863” 专题等项目。    担任《环境污染与防治》、《环境化学》、《环境工程》、《过程工程学报》、《同济大学学报 - 自然科学版》杂志编委、《苏州科技学院学报》顾问,华东理工大学兼职教授和博导、江苏工业学院、南京化工大学、石油大学(北京)兼职教授,中国环境保护产业协会城市垃圾处理专家委员会专家和中国建设部市政公用行业专家委员会环境卫生专家组专家、上海市 “ 十五 ” 期间科技发展重点领域技术预见专家,上海市环卫局科技顾问。 第1章绪论                                                     1 1.1固体废物的性质、分类和属性                                      1 1.1.1  固体废物的性质                                           1 1.1.2  固体废物的分类                                           2 1.1.3  固体废物的属性                                           2 1.2生活垃圾污染控制与资源化                                        2 1.2.1  生活垃圾卫生填埋                                         2 1.2.2  生活垃圾焚烧发电                                         4 1.2.3  生活垃圾交互污染与洁净原理和工艺                            5 1.2.4  生活垃圾分类及资源化                                      7 1.3工业固体废物污染控制与资源化                                    9 1.4危险废物污染控制与资源化                                       11 1.5我国固废领域的发展方向                                        12 1.5.1  资源化是解决固废污染和缓解资源能源短缺的突破口               12 1.5.2  固废领域发展趋势                                         13习题与思考题                                                 14第2章固体废物处理与资源化原理                                       15 2.1电磁学和空气动力学                                            15 2.1.1  电分选原理                                              15 2.1.2  磁分选原理                                              17 2.1.3  空气动力学原理                                          21 2.2环境微生物学                                             23 2.2.1  微生物种类及营养物质                                     23 2.2.2  微生物在环境中的分布                                     25 2.3化学热力学和化学动力学                                        27 2.3.1  化学热力学                                              27 2.3.2  化学动力学                                              31 2.4焚烧工艺计算                                            33 2.4.1  热值计算                                                33 2.4.2  焚烧过程热平衡                                          34 2.4.3  焚烧过程的物质平衡                                       36 2.4.4  理论和实际燃烧空气量                                     37 2.4.5  焚烧烟气量                                              37 2.4.6  燃烧火焰温度                                            38 2.5固态与水溶液中分离原理                                        38 2.5.1  离子沉淀法                                              38 2.5.2  还原法                                                 41 2.5.3  溶剂萃取法                                              43 2.5.4  离子交换法                                              45 2.5.5  膜分离方法                                              46 2.6环境影响评价方法                                             47 2.6.1  确定环境影响评价工作等级                                  47 2.6.2  编写环境影响评价大纲                                     47 2.6.3  建设项目工程分析                                         48 2.6.4  环境现状调查                                            48 2.6.5  环境影响预测与评价                                       48 2.6.6  环境保护措施及其可行性论证                                48 2.6.7  环境管理与监测                                          48习题与思考题                                                 49第3章生活垃圾源头分类与物流转运                                 50 3.1生活垃圾分类模式                                             50 3.1.1  新型垃圾分类模式                                         50 3.1.2  国际典型的垃圾分类模式                                    51 3.1.3  农村地区生活垃圾源头分类                                  51 3.2生活垃圾分类追溯体系                                          52 3.2.1  追溯体系概况                                            52 3.2.2  用户投放                                                52 3.3城市分类垃圾收运物流网络                                       53 3.3.1  直接收运模式                                            53 3.3.2  一级转运收运模式                                         54 3.3.3  二级转运收运模式                                         56 3.4垃圾收集模式                                             56 3.4.1  混合收集的垃圾收集模式                                    56 3.4.2  分类收集的垃圾收集模式                                    57 3.5垃圾转运系统与物流系统                                        58 3.5.1  垃圾转运系统                                            58 3.5.2  城镇垃圾物流系统                                         59 3.6大型中转站工艺                                               59 3.7中转站水平压缩转运系统                                        62 3.7.1  水平预压式压缩机                                         62 3.7.2  组成及作用原理                                          62 3.7.3  压缩工艺                                                64 3.8中转站竖式压缩转运系统                                        66 3.8.1  竖式压缩工艺流程                                         66 3.8.2  卸料溜槽及压实器系统                                     67 3.9生活垃圾分类环境卫生风险防控                                   68 3.9.1  垃圾分类新增环节环境卫生风险                              68 3.9.2  生活垃圾投放卫生风险防控                                  69 3.9.3  生活垃圾收集作业卫生风险防控                              69 3.9.4  作业人员防护                                            70 3.9.5  运输作业设备卫生风险防控                                  70习题与思考题                                                 70第4章生活垃圾填埋场稳定化过程                                       72 4.1固体垃圾的降解进程                                            72 4.1.1  总糖                                                  72 4.1.2  有机质                                                 73 4.1.3  生物可降解物                                            73 4.1.4  粗纤维                                                 73 4.1.5  固体垃圾降解数学模拟                                     74 4.2渗滤液水质衰减过程                                            75 4.2.1  水质指标变化                                            75 4.2.2  水质指标变化与时间的关系                                  76 4.3场地沉降性能变化                                             77 4.3.1  沉降量测定                                              77 4.3.2  沉降量与时间的关系                                       78 4.4填埋场稳定化预测与评价                                        79 4.4.1  填埋场稳定化预测                                         79 4.4.2  填埋场稳定化定量化评价                                    81 4.5填埋垃圾腐殖质分子量及其分布                                   85 4.5.1  腐殖质提取液分子量及其分布                                85 4.5.2  富里酸组分的分子量及其分布                                88 4.5.3  胡敏酸组分的分子量及其分布                                90习题与思考题                                                 92 第5章生活垃圾填埋场矿化垃圾资源化利用                                93 5.1矿化垃圾特性                                             93 5.2矿化垃圾开采与分选                                            95 5.2.1  开采及运输                                              95 5.2.2  分选主要流程                                            95 5.2.3  粗分和细分技术路线                                       96 5.3矿化垃圾园林绿化利用                                          97 5.3.1  矿化垃圾筛分细土性质分析                                  97 5.3.2  矿化垃圾对植物生长的影响                                  98 5.3.3  矿化垃圾对植物重金属累积率的影响                          101 5.3.4  矿化垃圾绿化工程方案设计                             103 5.4矿化垃圾生物反应床处理渗滤液                                  106 5.4.1  作为生物介质的可行性                                     106 5.4.2  污染物去除机理                                         106 5.4.3  生物反应床设计                                         107 5.4.4  工艺流程的确定                                         109 5.4.5  运行效果                                               110 5.5矿化垃圾生物反应床处理畜禽废水                                  111 5.6存量垃圾填埋场废旧塑料资源化                                  112 5.6.1  强化干洗洁净技术的构建和优势                             112 5.6.2  强化干洗洁净技术的实际运行效果                            113 5.6.3  原料分类挤压脱水成型技术                             113 5.7存量垃圾填埋场无机惰性物资源化                                 114 5.7.1  工艺流程                                               114 5.7.2  工艺计算及设备选型                                      115习题与思考题                                                    115第6章生活垃圾焚烧发电与飞灰压块技术                             116 6.1典型生活垃圾焚烧炉排                                     116 6.1.1  二段式焚烧炉                                           116 6.1.2  逆推式机械炉排炉                                        117 6.1.3 VONROLL炉排                                        118 6.2垃圾接收及贮存                                              119 6.2.1  垃圾接收                                               119 6.2.2  垃圾贮存                                               119 6.2.3  主要设备                                               120 6.2.4  垃圾池防渗、防腐措施                                     121 6.2.5  垃圾卸料大厅及垃圾池除臭措施                             121 6.3垃圾焚烧系统                                                122 6.3.1  垃圾给料系统                                           122 6.3.2  焚烧炉本体                                         122 6.3.3  点火及助燃系统                                         123 6.3.4  出渣机                                                 124 6.3.5  焚烧炉液压传动系统                                      124 6.4余热锅炉与汽轮发电系统                                       124 6.4.1  余热锅炉系统                                           124 6.4.2  汽轮机发电系统                                         126 6.5烟气净化系统                                                127 6.5.1  烟气原始参数及排放标准                                   127 6.5.2  二英排放控制                                         128 6.5.3  NOx排放控制                                            128 6.5.4  烟气在线监测系统                                        128 6.6焚烧飞灰高压压块减容填埋                                      129 6.6.1  焚烧飞灰可压缩性论证                                     129 6.6.2  焚烧飞灰压块工艺参数论证                             129 6.6.3  焚烧飞灰压块强度论证                                     131 6.6.4  焚烧飞灰固化体填埋论证                                   133 6.6.5  焚烧飞灰高压压块减容填埋工艺流程                          135 6.7焚烧飞灰熔融技术                                             136 6.7.1  焚烧飞灰熔融效果指标分析                             136 6.7.2  焚烧飞灰熔融工艺应用                                     137 6.8飞灰固化稳定化预处理工艺                                      139 6.8.1  总体工艺描述                                           139 6.8.2  飞灰给料系统                                           140 6.8.3  水泥给料系统                                           141 6.8.4  工艺水及螯合剂配置系统                                   142 6.8.5  飞灰混炼机                                         142 6.8.6  养护输送系统                                           142 6.8.7  压缩空气系统                                           143 6.8.8  污染治理系统                                           143 6.9飞灰填埋场分类                                              143 6.9.1  柔性填埋场                                         143 6.9.2  刚性填埋场                                         144习题与思考题                                                    144 第7章城市污泥堆肥和有机垃圾资源转化                             145 7.1城市污泥好氧堆肥温室气体排放                                  145 7.1.1  堆料气体中 O2和 CO2浓度变化                             146 7.1.2  堆体温度变化                                           147 7.1.3  堆料水溶性有机碳变化                                     148 7.1.4  堆料 pH变化                                           149 7.1.5  堆料浸出液中氮元素变化                                   149 7.1.6  堆肥过程 N2O的释放特征                                  150 7.2生物炭添加对城市污泥堆肥 N2O释放影响                           151 7.2.1  堆体温度变化                                           152 7.2.2  堆料 pH变化                                           152 7.2.3  堆料浸出液中氨氮、亚硝酸盐氮和硝酸盐氮                 152 7.2.4  城市污泥堆肥过程 N2O的释放特征                           154 7.3仓式工艺城市污泥堆肥厂 N2O释放                               155 7.4餐厨垃圾聚合交联                                             159 7.4.1  餐厨垃圾聚合交联反应可行性                               159 7.4.2  餐厨垃圾水凝胶的制备                                     160 7.4.3  复合水凝胶土壤肥力提升性能                               163 7.5餐厨垃圾制备化工产品                                     165 7.5.1  可行性分析                                         165 7.5.2  生命周期评价                                           167 7.6污泥与餐厨垃圾联合厌氧发酵                                    168 7.6.1  联合厌氧发酵产氢效果                                     168 7.6.2  联合厌氧发酵产甲烷效果                                   169 7.6.3  联合厌氧发酵机理                                        170习题与思考题                                                    171第8章生活垃圾渗滤液处理技术                                        172 8.1生活垃圾渗滤液特征                                           172 8.2填埋场渗滤液基本性质变化                                      173 8.2.1  渗滤液离子综合参数变化过程                               173 8.2.2  渗滤液碳物质及矿物油含量变化过程                          174 8.2.3  渗滤液氮、磷系物含量变化过程                             176 8.2.4  渗滤液阴离子含量变化过程                             177 8.2.5  渗滤液离子形态变化过程                                   178 8.3渗滤液化学混凝处理技术                                       180 8.4渗滤液深井好氧预处理技术                                      180 8.4.1  深井好氧预处理工艺流程                                   180 8.4.2  梯度压力好氧装置处理渗滤液                               182 8.5渗滤液反渗透( RO)浓缩液深度处理技术                           187 8.5.1  浓缩液基本特征                                         187 8.5.2  过硫酸钾深度氧化技术                                     189 8.5.3  低能耗蒸发技术                                         191 8.6联合工艺处理垃圾渗滤液                                       192习题与思考题                                                    193第9章生活垃圾恶臭控制技术                                         194 9.1恶臭的相关概念                                              194 9.2恶臭的类型划分                                              196 9.3生活垃圾填埋场中恶臭气体                                      196 9.3.1  常见恶臭污染物及其特征                                   196 9.3.2  恶臭污染物的产生过程                                     197 9.3.3  H2S气体产生原因                                        198 9.4生活垃圾填埋场恶臭污染特征                                    199 9.5恶臭释放规律                                                199 9.5.1  概化分子式模型与恶臭释放总量                             199 9.5.2  生活垃圾恶臭气体释放速率                             201 9.6恶臭污染控制技术                                             203 9.6.1  恶臭污染控制方法                                        203 9.6.2  生活垃圾填埋场恶臭污染控制措施                            204 9.6.3  生活垃圾填埋场恶臭治理技术                               205 9.7氢氧化铁喷洒削减恶臭                                     206 9.7.1  氢氧化铁对填埋气中硫化氢浓度的影响                        206 9.7.2  氢氧化铁对填埋气中氨气浓度的影响                          207 9.7.3  氢氧化铁对填埋气中甲烷浓度的影响                          208 9.7.4  氢氧化铁对填埋气恶臭指数的影响                            208 9.7.5  氢氧化铁用于集装化生活垃圾中转站的恶臭原位控制              209 9.8填埋作业面积最小化                                           211 9.8.1  达西定律与填埋场恶臭迁移规律                             211 9.8.2  利于恶臭控制的面积最小化垃圾堆体形状                       212 9.8.3  利于恶臭控制的面积最小化作业面形状                        214 9.9除臭剂喷洒                                                  216 9.9.1  EM菌除臭剂                                            216 9.9.2  木醋液除臭效果                                         216 9.10  高空喷洒设备                                               217 9.10.1高空喷洒方法                                          217 9.10.2高压喷雾风炮的工作原理                                  217 9.10.3高压喷雾风炮的喷雾分析                                  218 9.10.4高压喷雾风炮气液两相流动实验                             220 9.10.5雾滴轨迹影响因素分析                                    223习题与思考题                                                    225第10章危险废物碱介质处理技术                                       226 10.1碱介质湿法冶金技术                                          226 10.2碱性熔体热处理技术                                          227 10.3烧碱溶液浸取和资源转化两性重金属危险废物                       228 10.3.1锌碱溶性废物和尾矿的浸出                                228 10.3.2硫化锌的机械活化转化浸出                                229 10.3.3铁酸锌水解 -熔融-浸出                                   230 10.3.4铅碱溶性废物和尾矿的浸出                                232 10.3.5电解废液苛化处理与再生                                  233 10.3.6碱溶性金属废物碱介质提取技术集成                     234 10.4锌粉生产工艺的生命周期评价                                   236 10.4.1碱浸-电解法生产锌粉工艺的生命周期评价                 236 10.4.2含锌危险废物碱浸 -电解法再生锌粉生产工艺的生命周期评价       240 10.5碱性熔盐体系氧化处理含氯有机危险废物                          241 10.5.1碱性熔盐熔化温度                                       241 10.5.2碱性熔盐的蓄热性                                       242 10.5.3熔融 NaOH-KOH的热力学性质                             242 10.6烧碱熔盐脱氯解毒含氯危险废物                                 243 10.7烧碱熔盐处理工业废盐                                        245 10.7.1烧碱熔盐处理工业废盐排气浓度                             245 10.7.2烧碱熔盐处理工业废盐残渣                                248 10.7.3烧碱熔盐反应器材质对农药蒸馏残渣的氧化                    249 10.8熔盐氧化系统工艺设计                                        251习题与思考题                                                    253第11章医疗废物收运与焚烧技术                                       254 11.1医疗废物的分类                                             254 11.2医疗废物产生量                                             255 11.3医疗废物收运、贮存和灭菌消毒                                 255 11.3.1  医疗废物收运和贮存                                     255 11.3.2  医疗废物灭菌消毒                                       257 11.4不同临床废物及其处置方式比较                                 258 11.5医疗废物回转窑焚烧工艺与设计                                 259 11.6大型现代化医疗废物焚烧工艺                                   260 11.6.1  进料                                                260 11.6.2  焚烧炉                                                260 11.6.3  烟气净化                                              260 11.6.4  含高浓度氯化氢尾气处理                                  261 11.6.5  焚烧生产线日常管理                                     261 11.7可调节医疗废物恒流量进料系统                                 262 11.8不同进料方式的稳定焚烧                                       262 11.8.1  进料方式对窑头、窑尾温度的影响                           263 11.8.2  进料方式对二燃室氧含量的影响                             264 11.8.3  进料方式对窑头负压和 CO浓度的影响                        264 11.8.4  进料方式对炉渣热灼减率的影响                             265 11.8.5  进料方式对 HCl、SO2排放浓度的影响                        265 11.8.6  进料方式对脱酸药剂的影响                                266 11.9医疗废物焚烧影响因素                                        266 11.9.1  常规影响因素                                          266 11.9.2  回转窑转动模式的影响                                    267 11.10二英控制技术                                        269 11.10.1  抑制剂对二英的控制                                  269 11.10.2  活性炭投加方式对二英的净化效果比较                 270 11.10.3  不同专用活性炭投加剂量下的净化效果比较                   270 11.10.4  不同气相接触时间的影响                             271 11.10.5  投加活性炭喷射方式的调整                               271 11.10.6  二英控制原则                                       273 11.11高温熔渣控渣技术                                           274 11.11.1  回转窑玻璃结渣过程及主要控制措施                         274 11.11.2  回转窑内部高温熔渣控制关键技术                          274 11.11.3  防结渣关键技术                                        275 11.12医疗废物焚烧余热发电利用                                    276习题与思考题                                                    277第12章污染工业建筑废物处理与利用                                   278 12.1工业建筑废物污染特征                                        278 12.1.1建筑废物中汞的污染特征                                  278 12.1.2建筑废物中砷的污染特征                                  280 12.1.3建筑废物中多环芳烃、挥发性有机物污染特征                  283 12.2建筑废物取样与预处理                                        286 12.2.1拆毁前建筑废物取样技术                                  286 12.2.2拆毁后建筑废物取样技术                                  287 12.2.3建筑废物取样工具及设备                                  288 12.2.4建筑废物浸出方法                                       288 12.3污染建筑废物浸出毒性及污染控制                                290 12.3.1重金属污染建筑废物再生混凝土试块浸出毒性特征               290 12.3.2六种不同建筑材料制备再生混凝土块浸出毒性特征               292 12.4建筑废物无害化处理技术                                      294 12.4.1重金属污染建筑废物处理修复技术                           294 12.4.2有机物污染建筑废物热处理修复技术                     296 12.4.3超高压液压压制高密度污染建筑废物                     298 12.5建筑废物涂料制备技术                                        298 12.5.1建筑废物水性涂料制备流程                                298 12.5.2高耐洗刷砖粉水性涂料性能分析与制备工艺                    299 12.5.3保温隔热涂料的配方与制备工艺                             300 12.6建筑废物污染防治管理建议                                 301 12.6.1污染防护设计与施工                                     301 12.6.2污染防护措施的运营与维护                                304 12.6.3工业企业火灾、爆炸建筑废物污染防治问题及对策建议           305 12.6.4建筑废物再生利用的监管建议                              306习题与思考题                                                    307参考文献                                                           309
  • 内容简介:
    《固体废物处理与资源化原理及技术》包括固体废物处理与资源化原理、生活垃圾源头分类与物流转运及环境卫生风险防控、生活垃圾填埋场稳定化过程、生活垃圾填埋场矿化垃圾资源化利用、生活垃圾焚烧发电与飞灰压块技术、城市污泥堆肥和有机垃圾资源转化、生活垃圾渗滤液处理技术、生活垃圾恶臭控制技术、危险废物碱介质处理技术、医疗废物收运与焚烧技术、污染工业建筑废物处理与利用等,具有技术创新性、工程实用性和理论系统性的特点。《固体废物处理与资源化原理及技术》可作为高等院校环境工程、环境生态工程、资源循环科学与工程等专业的研究生教学用书,还可供环境领域固体废物有关技术的研发、设计人员和教学人员参考,并可作资料数据库使用。
  • 作者简介:
    赵由才,同济大学环境学院,教授 博导,在生活垃圾填埋场稳定化、填埋场中矿化垃圾利用原理与技术、垃圾渗滤液处理、污泥填埋技术、危险废物固化和氧化锌矿清洁生产与资源利用方面作了创新性研究工作。研究领域主要是城市生活垃圾与危险废物处理与资源化以及贫锌矿的清洁生产工艺。多年来作为项目负责人承担国家 “863” 专题等项目。    担任《环境污染与防治》、《环境化学》、《环境工程》、《过程工程学报》、《同济大学学报 - 自然科学版》杂志编委、《苏州科技学院学报》顾问,华东理工大学兼职教授和博导、江苏工业学院、南京化工大学、石油大学(北京)兼职教授,中国环境保护产业协会城市垃圾处理专家委员会专家和中国建设部市政公用行业专家委员会环境卫生专家组专家、上海市 “ 十五 ” 期间科技发展重点领域技术预见专家,上海市环卫局科技顾问。
  • 目录:
    第1章绪论                                                     1 1.1固体废物的性质、分类和属性                                      1 1.1.1  固体废物的性质                                           1 1.1.2  固体废物的分类                                           2 1.1.3  固体废物的属性                                           2 1.2生活垃圾污染控制与资源化                                        2 1.2.1  生活垃圾卫生填埋                                         2 1.2.2  生活垃圾焚烧发电                                         4 1.2.3  生活垃圾交互污染与洁净原理和工艺                            5 1.2.4  生活垃圾分类及资源化                                      7 1.3工业固体废物污染控制与资源化                                    9 1.4危险废物污染控制与资源化                                       11 1.5我国固废领域的发展方向                                        12 1.5.1  资源化是解决固废污染和缓解资源能源短缺的突破口               12 1.5.2  固废领域发展趋势                                         13习题与思考题                                                 14第2章固体废物处理与资源化原理                                       15 2.1电磁学和空气动力学                                            15 2.1.1  电分选原理                                              15 2.1.2  磁分选原理                                              17 2.1.3  空气动力学原理                                          21 2.2环境微生物学                                             23 2.2.1  微生物种类及营养物质                                     23 2.2.2  微生物在环境中的分布                                     25 2.3化学热力学和化学动力学                                        27 2.3.1  化学热力学                                              27 2.3.2  化学动力学                                              31 2.4焚烧工艺计算                                            33 2.4.1  热值计算                                                33 2.4.2  焚烧过程热平衡                                          34 2.4.3  焚烧过程的物质平衡                                       36 2.4.4  理论和实际燃烧空气量                                     37 2.4.5  焚烧烟气量                                              37 2.4.6  燃烧火焰温度                                            38 2.5固态与水溶液中分离原理                                        38 2.5.1  离子沉淀法                                              38 2.5.2  还原法                                                 41 2.5.3  溶剂萃取法                                              43 2.5.4  离子交换法                                              45 2.5.5  膜分离方法                                              46 2.6环境影响评价方法                                             47 2.6.1  确定环境影响评价工作等级                                  47 2.6.2  编写环境影响评价大纲                                     47 2.6.3  建设项目工程分析                                         48 2.6.4  环境现状调查                                            48 2.6.5  环境影响预测与评价                                       48 2.6.6  环境保护措施及其可行性论证                                48 2.6.7  环境管理与监测                                          48习题与思考题                                                 49第3章生活垃圾源头分类与物流转运                                 50 3.1生活垃圾分类模式                                             50 3.1.1  新型垃圾分类模式                                         50 3.1.2  国际典型的垃圾分类模式                                    51 3.1.3  农村地区生活垃圾源头分类                                  51 3.2生活垃圾分类追溯体系                                          52 3.2.1  追溯体系概况                                            52 3.2.2  用户投放                                                52 3.3城市分类垃圾收运物流网络                                       53 3.3.1  直接收运模式                                            53 3.3.2  一级转运收运模式                                         54 3.3.3  二级转运收运模式                                         56 3.4垃圾收集模式                                             56 3.4.1  混合收集的垃圾收集模式                                    56 3.4.2  分类收集的垃圾收集模式                                    57 3.5垃圾转运系统与物流系统                                        58 3.5.1  垃圾转运系统                                            58 3.5.2  城镇垃圾物流系统                                         59 3.6大型中转站工艺                                               59 3.7中转站水平压缩转运系统                                        62 3.7.1  水平预压式压缩机                                         62 3.7.2  组成及作用原理                                          62 3.7.3  压缩工艺                                                64 3.8中转站竖式压缩转运系统                                        66 3.8.1  竖式压缩工艺流程                                         66 3.8.2  卸料溜槽及压实器系统                                     67 3.9生活垃圾分类环境卫生风险防控                                   68 3.9.1  垃圾分类新增环节环境卫生风险                              68 3.9.2  生活垃圾投放卫生风险防控                                  69 3.9.3  生活垃圾收集作业卫生风险防控                              69 3.9.4  作业人员防护                                            70 3.9.5  运输作业设备卫生风险防控                                  70习题与思考题                                                 70第4章生活垃圾填埋场稳定化过程                                       72 4.1固体垃圾的降解进程                                            72 4.1.1  总糖                                                  72 4.1.2  有机质                                                 73 4.1.3  生物可降解物                                            73 4.1.4  粗纤维                                                 73 4.1.5  固体垃圾降解数学模拟                                     74 4.2渗滤液水质衰减过程                                            75 4.2.1  水质指标变化                                            75 4.2.2  水质指标变化与时间的关系                                  76 4.3场地沉降性能变化                                             77 4.3.1  沉降量测定                                              77 4.3.2  沉降量与时间的关系                                       78 4.4填埋场稳定化预测与评价                                        79 4.4.1  填埋场稳定化预测                                         79 4.4.2  填埋场稳定化定量化评价                                    81 4.5填埋垃圾腐殖质分子量及其分布                                   85 4.5.1  腐殖质提取液分子量及其分布                                85 4.5.2  富里酸组分的分子量及其分布                                88 4.5.3  胡敏酸组分的分子量及其分布                                90习题与思考题                                                 92 第5章生活垃圾填埋场矿化垃圾资源化利用                                93 5.1矿化垃圾特性                                             93 5.2矿化垃圾开采与分选                                            95 5.2.1  开采及运输                                              95 5.2.2  分选主要流程                                            95 5.2.3  粗分和细分技术路线                                       96 5.3矿化垃圾园林绿化利用                                          97 5.3.1  矿化垃圾筛分细土性质分析                                  97 5.3.2  矿化垃圾对植物生长的影响                                  98 5.3.3  矿化垃圾对植物重金属累积率的影响                          101 5.3.4  矿化垃圾绿化工程方案设计                             103 5.4矿化垃圾生物反应床处理渗滤液                                  106 5.4.1  作为生物介质的可行性                                     106 5.4.2  污染物去除机理                                         106 5.4.3  生物反应床设计                                         107 5.4.4  工艺流程的确定                                         109 5.4.5  运行效果                                               110 5.5矿化垃圾生物反应床处理畜禽废水                                  111 5.6存量垃圾填埋场废旧塑料资源化                                  112 5.6.1  强化干洗洁净技术的构建和优势                             112 5.6.2  强化干洗洁净技术的实际运行效果                            113 5.6.3  原料分类挤压脱水成型技术                             113 5.7存量垃圾填埋场无机惰性物资源化                                 114 5.7.1  工艺流程                                               114 5.7.2  工艺计算及设备选型                                      115习题与思考题                                                    115第6章生活垃圾焚烧发电与飞灰压块技术                             116 6.1典型生活垃圾焚烧炉排                                     116 6.1.1  二段式焚烧炉                                           116 6.1.2  逆推式机械炉排炉                                        117 6.1.3 VONROLL炉排                                        118 6.2垃圾接收及贮存                                              119 6.2.1  垃圾接收                                               119 6.2.2  垃圾贮存                                               119 6.2.3  主要设备                                               120 6.2.4  垃圾池防渗、防腐措施                                     121 6.2.5  垃圾卸料大厅及垃圾池除臭措施                             121 6.3垃圾焚烧系统                                                122 6.3.1  垃圾给料系统                                           122 6.3.2  焚烧炉本体                                         122 6.3.3  点火及助燃系统                                         123 6.3.4  出渣机                                                 124 6.3.5  焚烧炉液压传动系统                                      124 6.4余热锅炉与汽轮发电系统                                       124 6.4.1  余热锅炉系统                                           124 6.4.2  汽轮机发电系统                                         126 6.5烟气净化系统                                                127 6.5.1  烟气原始参数及排放标准                                   127 6.5.2  二英排放控制                                         128 6.5.3  NOx排放控制                                            128 6.5.4  烟气在线监测系统                                        128 6.6焚烧飞灰高压压块减容填埋                                      129 6.6.1  焚烧飞灰可压缩性论证                                     129 6.6.2  焚烧飞灰压块工艺参数论证                             129 6.6.3  焚烧飞灰压块强度论证                                     131 6.6.4  焚烧飞灰固化体填埋论证                                   133 6.6.5  焚烧飞灰高压压块减容填埋工艺流程                          135 6.7焚烧飞灰熔融技术                                             136 6.7.1  焚烧飞灰熔融效果指标分析                             136 6.7.2  焚烧飞灰熔融工艺应用                                     137 6.8飞灰固化稳定化预处理工艺                                      139 6.8.1  总体工艺描述                                           139 6.8.2  飞灰给料系统                                           140 6.8.3  水泥给料系统                                           141 6.8.4  工艺水及螯合剂配置系统                                   142 6.8.5  飞灰混炼机                                         142 6.8.6  养护输送系统                                           142 6.8.7  压缩空气系统                                           143 6.8.8  污染治理系统                                           143 6.9飞灰填埋场分类                                              143 6.9.1  柔性填埋场                                         143 6.9.2  刚性填埋场                                         144习题与思考题                                                    144 第7章城市污泥堆肥和有机垃圾资源转化                             145 7.1城市污泥好氧堆肥温室气体排放                                  145 7.1.1  堆料气体中 O2和 CO2浓度变化                             146 7.1.2  堆体温度变化                                           147 7.1.3  堆料水溶性有机碳变化                                     148 7.1.4  堆料 pH变化                                           149 7.1.5  堆料浸出液中氮元素变化                                   149 7.1.6  堆肥过程 N2O的释放特征                                  150 7.2生物炭添加对城市污泥堆肥 N2O释放影响                           151 7.2.1  堆体温度变化                                           152 7.2.2  堆料 pH变化                                           152 7.2.3  堆料浸出液中氨氮、亚硝酸盐氮和硝酸盐氮                 152 7.2.4  城市污泥堆肥过程 N2O的释放特征                           154 7.3仓式工艺城市污泥堆肥厂 N2O释放                               155 7.4餐厨垃圾聚合交联                                             159 7.4.1  餐厨垃圾聚合交联反应可行性                               159 7.4.2  餐厨垃圾水凝胶的制备                                     160 7.4.3  复合水凝胶土壤肥力提升性能                               163 7.5餐厨垃圾制备化工产品                                     165 7.5.1  可行性分析                                         165 7.5.2  生命周期评价                                           167 7.6污泥与餐厨垃圾联合厌氧发酵                                    168 7.6.1  联合厌氧发酵产氢效果                                     168 7.6.2  联合厌氧发酵产甲烷效果                                   169 7.6.3  联合厌氧发酵机理                                        170习题与思考题                                                    171第8章生活垃圾渗滤液处理技术                                        172 8.1生活垃圾渗滤液特征                                           172 8.2填埋场渗滤液基本性质变化                                      173 8.2.1  渗滤液离子综合参数变化过程                               173 8.2.2  渗滤液碳物质及矿物油含量变化过程                          174 8.2.3  渗滤液氮、磷系物含量变化过程                             176 8.2.4  渗滤液阴离子含量变化过程                             177 8.2.5  渗滤液离子形态变化过程                                   178 8.3渗滤液化学混凝处理技术                                       180 8.4渗滤液深井好氧预处理技术                                      180 8.4.1  深井好氧预处理工艺流程                                   180 8.4.2  梯度压力好氧装置处理渗滤液                               182 8.5渗滤液反渗透( RO)浓缩液深度处理技术                           187 8.5.1  浓缩液基本特征                                         187 8.5.2  过硫酸钾深度氧化技术                                     189 8.5.3  低能耗蒸发技术                                         191 8.6联合工艺处理垃圾渗滤液                                       192习题与思考题                                                    193第9章生活垃圾恶臭控制技术                                         194 9.1恶臭的相关概念                                              194 9.2恶臭的类型划分                                              196 9.3生活垃圾填埋场中恶臭气体                                      196 9.3.1  常见恶臭污染物及其特征                                   196 9.3.2  恶臭污染物的产生过程                                     197 9.3.3  H2S气体产生原因                                        198 9.4生活垃圾填埋场恶臭污染特征                                    199 9.5恶臭释放规律                                                199 9.5.1  概化分子式模型与恶臭释放总量                             199 9.5.2  生活垃圾恶臭气体释放速率                             201 9.6恶臭污染控制技术                                             203 9.6.1  恶臭污染控制方法                                        203 9.6.2  生活垃圾填埋场恶臭污染控制措施                            204 9.6.3  生活垃圾填埋场恶臭治理技术                               205 9.7氢氧化铁喷洒削减恶臭                                     206 9.7.1  氢氧化铁对填埋气中硫化氢浓度的影响                        206 9.7.2  氢氧化铁对填埋气中氨气浓度的影响                          207 9.7.3  氢氧化铁对填埋气中甲烷浓度的影响                          208 9.7.4  氢氧化铁对填埋气恶臭指数的影响                            208 9.7.5  氢氧化铁用于集装化生活垃圾中转站的恶臭原位控制              209 9.8填埋作业面积最小化                                           211 9.8.1  达西定律与填埋场恶臭迁移规律                             211 9.8.2  利于恶臭控制的面积最小化垃圾堆体形状                       212 9.8.3  利于恶臭控制的面积最小化作业面形状                        214 9.9除臭剂喷洒                                                  216 9.9.1  EM菌除臭剂                                            216 9.9.2  木醋液除臭效果                                         216 9.10  高空喷洒设备                                               217 9.10.1高空喷洒方法                                          217 9.10.2高压喷雾风炮的工作原理                                  217 9.10.3高压喷雾风炮的喷雾分析                                  218 9.10.4高压喷雾风炮气液两相流动实验                             220 9.10.5雾滴轨迹影响因素分析                                    223习题与思考题                                                    225第10章危险废物碱介质处理技术                                       226 10.1碱介质湿法冶金技术                                          226 10.2碱性熔体热处理技术                                          227 10.3烧碱溶液浸取和资源转化两性重金属危险废物                       228 10.3.1锌碱溶性废物和尾矿的浸出                                228 10.3.2硫化锌的机械活化转化浸出                                229 10.3.3铁酸锌水解 -熔融-浸出                                   230 10.3.4铅碱溶性废物和尾矿的浸出                                232 10.3.5电解废液苛化处理与再生                                  233 10.3.6碱溶性金属废物碱介质提取技术集成                     234 10.4锌粉生产工艺的生命周期评价                                   236 10.4.1碱浸-电解法生产锌粉工艺的生命周期评价                 236 10.4.2含锌危险废物碱浸 -电解法再生锌粉生产工艺的生命周期评价       240 10.5碱性熔盐体系氧化处理含氯有机危险废物                          241 10.5.1碱性熔盐熔化温度                                       241 10.5.2碱性熔盐的蓄热性                                       242 10.5.3熔融 NaOH-KOH的热力学性质                             242 10.6烧碱熔盐脱氯解毒含氯危险废物                                 243 10.7烧碱熔盐处理工业废盐                                        245 10.7.1烧碱熔盐处理工业废盐排气浓度                             245 10.7.2烧碱熔盐处理工业废盐残渣                                248 10.7.3烧碱熔盐反应器材质对农药蒸馏残渣的氧化                    249 10.8熔盐氧化系统工艺设计                                        251习题与思考题                                                    253第11章医疗废物收运与焚烧技术                                       254 11.1医疗废物的分类                                             254 11.2医疗废物产生量                                             255 11.3医疗废物收运、贮存和灭菌消毒                                 255 11.3.1  医疗废物收运和贮存                                     255 11.3.2  医疗废物灭菌消毒                                       257 11.4不同临床废物及其处置方式比较                                 258 11.5医疗废物回转窑焚烧工艺与设计                                 259 11.6大型现代化医疗废物焚烧工艺                                   260 11.6.1  进料                                                260 11.6.2  焚烧炉                                                260 11.6.3  烟气净化                                              260 11.6.4  含高浓度氯化氢尾气处理                                  261 11.6.5  焚烧生产线日常管理                                     261 11.7可调节医疗废物恒流量进料系统                                 262 11.8不同进料方式的稳定焚烧                                       262 11.8.1  进料方式对窑头、窑尾温度的影响                           263 11.8.2  进料方式对二燃室氧含量的影响                             264 11.8.3  进料方式对窑头负压和 CO浓度的影响                        264 11.8.4  进料方式对炉渣热灼减率的影响                             265 11.8.5  进料方式对 HCl、SO2排放浓度的影响                        265 11.8.6  进料方式对脱酸药剂的影响                                266 11.9医疗废物焚烧影响因素                                        266 11.9.1  常规影响因素                                          266 11.9.2  回转窑转动模式的影响                                    267 11.10二英控制技术                                        269 11.10.1  抑制剂对二英的控制                                  269 11.10.2  活性炭投加方式对二英的净化效果比较                 270 11.10.3  不同专用活性炭投加剂量下的净化效果比较                   270 11.10.4  不同气相接触时间的影响                             271 11.10.5  投加活性炭喷射方式的调整                               271 11.10.6  二英控制原则                                       273 11.11高温熔渣控渣技术                                           274 11.11.1  回转窑玻璃结渣过程及主要控制措施                         274 11.11.2  回转窑内部高温熔渣控制关键技术                          274 11.11.3  防结渣关键技术                                        275 11.12医疗废物焚烧余热发电利用                                    276习题与思考题                                                    277第12章污染工业建筑废物处理与利用                                   278 12.1工业建筑废物污染特征                                        278 12.1.1建筑废物中汞的污染特征                                  278 12.1.2建筑废物中砷的污染特征                                  280 12.1.3建筑废物中多环芳烃、挥发性有机物污染特征                  283 12.2建筑废物取样与预处理                                        286 12.2.1拆毁前建筑废物取样技术                                  286 12.2.2拆毁后建筑废物取样技术                                  287 12.2.3建筑废物取样工具及设备                                  288 12.2.4建筑废物浸出方法                                       288 12.3污染建筑废物浸出毒性及污染控制                                290 12.3.1重金属污染建筑废物再生混凝土试块浸出毒性特征               290 12.3.2六种不同建筑材料制备再生混凝土块浸出毒性特征               292 12.4建筑废物无害化处理技术                                      294 12.4.1重金属污染建筑废物处理修复技术                           294 12.4.2有机物污染建筑废物热处理修复技术                     296 12.4.3超高压液压压制高密度污染建筑废物                     298 12.5建筑废物涂料制备技术                                        298 12.5.1建筑废物水性涂料制备流程                                298 12.5.2高耐洗刷砖粉水性涂料性能分析与制备工艺                    299 12.5.3保温隔热涂料的配方与制备工艺                             300 12.6建筑废物污染防治管理建议                                 301 12.6.1污染防护设计与施工                                     301 12.6.2污染防护措施的运营与维护                                304 12.6.3工业企业火灾、爆炸建筑废物污染防治问题及对策建议           305 12.6.4建筑废物再生利用的监管建议                              306习题与思考题                                                    307参考文献                                                           309
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